ngiogenesis is essential for tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis. Herein we described the synthesis of RGD peptide-decorated and doxorubicin-loaded selenium nanoparticles (RGD-NPs) targeting tumor vasculature to enhance the cellular uptake and antiangiogenic activities in vitro and in vivo. After internalization by receptor-mediated endocytosis, this nanosystem disassembled under acidic condition with the presence of lysozymes and cell lysate, leading to bioresponsive triggered drug release. Mechanistic investigation revealed that RGD-NPs inhibited angiogenesis through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via suppression of VEGF-VEGFR2-ERK/AKT signaling axis by triggering ROS-mediated DNA damage. Additionally, RGD-NPs can inhibit MCF-7 tumor growth and angiogenesis in nude mice via down-regulation of VEGF-VEGFR2, effectively reduce the toxicity and prolong the blood circulation in vivo. Our results suggest that the strategy to use RGD-peptide functionalized SeNPs as carriers of anticancer drugs is an efficient way to achieve cancer-targeted antiangiogenesis synergism.